Member universities represent a range of private and public universities of various enrollment sizes located primarily in urban metropolitan areas in the NortheasternMidwesternand Southern regions of the United States.
The league is the product of substantial turmoil in the old Big East during the —14 conference realignment period. It is one of two conferences to emerge from the all-sports Big East in While the other successor, which does not sponsor football, purchased the Big East Conference name, The American inherited the old Big East's structure and is that conference's legal successor.
However, both conferences claim as their founding date, and the same history up to The Big East Conference was founded in as a basketball conference and included the colleges of ProvidenceSt. Seton Hall was then invited as a replacement and the conference started play with seven members. Villanova and Pittsburgh joined shortly thereafter under the leadership of the first Big East commissioner, Dave Gavitt.
The conference remained largely unchanged untilwhen it began to sponsor football, adding Miami as a full member, and Rutgers, TempleVirginia Techand West Virginia as football-only members. Temple football was kicked out after the season, but rejoined in and intended to become a full member in The unusual structure of the Big East, with the "football" and "non-football" schools, led to instability in the conference.HYMN 168-Ndiani Pane Zamba-AAC
The conference was reorganized following the tumultuous period of realignment that hobbled the Big East between and The Big East was one of the most severely impacted conferences during the most recent conference realignment period.
In all, 14 member schools announced their departure for other conferences, and 15 other schools announced plans to join the conference eight as all-sports members, and four for football only. Three of the latter group later backed out of their plans to join one for all sports, and the other two for football only.
Following the announcement of the departure of the Catholic 7 universities, the remaining ten football-playing members started the process of selecting a new name for the conference and choosing a new site to hold its basketball tournament. To restate and clarify a somewhat confusing series of events: on July 1, the original Big East changed its name to the American Athletic Conference, while the "Catholic 7" split off and joined Butler, Creighton, and Xavier to form a "new" Big East.
While The American is reckoned as the original conference and the "new" Big East is considered a spinoff, the "new" Big East retained the rights to the original Big East logo, trademarks, and men's basketball tournament. Louisville and Rutgers spent one season in the newly renamed conference. For the next several years, The American did not discuss the addition of any new members.
However, in Marchmedia reports indicated that the conference was seriously considering adding one or more new members specifically as basketball upgrades. The report indicated that a final decision would be made in April. On June 21,a Boston-area sports news website, Digital Sports Deskrevealed that UConn was expected to announce by the end of the month that it would leave the American for the Big East Conference in The main issue that reportedly had to be resolved prior to any official announcement was the future of UConn football, as the Big East does not sponsor that sport, and sources indicated that the American had no interest in retaining UConn as a football-only member.
Reportedly, American Conference insiders were not surprised by UConn's prospective move, as that school had been vigorously opposed to that league's most recently announced television deal.
National media believed that should UConn leave the American, the conference's likeliest response would be to bring in two new schools—one for football only and a second in non-football sports, similar to the American's sequential additions of Navy and Wichita State.Communication devices, systems, strategies and tools that replace or support natural speech are known as augmentative and alternative communication AAC.
These tools support a person who has difficulties communicating using speech. When you augment something, you add to it or supplement. Augmentative communication is when you add something to your speech eg. This can make your message clearer to your listener. This is when you are not able to speak. It is also when your speech is not understood by others. In this case, you need a different way to communicate. Basically, AAC can be tools, systems, devices or strategies.
These tools help a person communicate, when they cannot rely on speech. Perhaps your child has not started talking. Perhaps you have lost your ability to speak. Perhaps your speech comes and goes. Maybe speaking is harder than other ways to communicate. AAC can help. There are many reasons why a person may not be able to communicate using speech. They may have a developmental disability which has affected the development of speech.
Many people with different communication difficulties, speech impediments and disorders can benefit from AAC.
Communicating without speech is difficult. People who do not speak are at a disadvantage in a speaking world. It can be confusing and frustrating when messages cannot be given effectively. This is frustrating for both the non-speaking person and their communication partner. Often a non-speaking person will have many thoughts they wish to communicate. How do they get these thoughts out? When a person is not able to speak, others often make judgements about their competence, potential, and ability to think and learn.
A person who does not speak will quickly learn that some things are easy to communicate e. They also learn that some things are hard to communicate e. AAC incorporates all the tools and strategies a person can use to communicate, when they are not able to speak.
We may use a high-tech tool e. An AAC system may be a text-based system with a keyboard. This is generally for a person who types the words they want to say. They can often read and spell. Many people might need symbols or pictures when communicating. This includes those people who cannot yet read or spell. We can introduce visual symbols that represent words or maybe phrases. Many people who cannot speak but use AAC are multimodal communicators. This means they have multiple ways to communicate their messages.
As well as AAC, they might use vocalizations, word approximations, and maybe some gesture and sign language. Many people show photos from their camera roll to add to what they are saying. All different methods of communication should be valued and respected.AAC is a proven leader in the federal systems integrator community.
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For over 50 years, PRC has been a leader in giving a voice to those who cannot speak for themselves. Since our founding inPRC has paved the way in the development of speech-generating devices SGDs and continues to innovate in the field of augmentative and alternative communication.
We are also a pioneer in the field of language and vocabulary development, giving children and adults with communication challenges the ability to participate in life. Subscribe to our newsletter! By checking this box, you are confirming that you want to recieve newsletter emails on a periodic basis.
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I would like to All Rights Reserved.For the best experience on our site, please turn off compatibility view in the tools menu, or use a different browser. Augmentative and alternative communication, or AAC, is a term that's used to describe various methods of communication that can help people who are unable to use verbal speech to communicate. AAC methods vary and may be personalized to meet each individual's needs. AAC encompasses a wide range of nonverbal communication methods, from sign language and picture boards to mobile device apps and sophisticated, dedicated speech-generating devices SGDs.
A major advantage of SGDs is that these devices allow an individual to say and play with words. In addition, there is evidence that pairing the communicated word with voice output may help children with auditory processing of spoken language. For those physically unable to use the touchscreen, SGDs offer flexible access options including:.
With the power of communication, many AAC users enjoy full and productive lives, communicating spontaneously wherever and whenever they want. As you child continues to learn and grow, there are additional opportunities available to expand his or her reach. Some people need AAC only for a short time, while others may use it throughout their lives. AAC allows an individual to express their needs and wants, and more fully participate in decisions that affect their lives.
AAC also benefits family members and other significant others, providing a way for them to more fully communicate with their loved ones.
Many different AAC methods are used by people of all ages with various physical or learning difficulties.
Speech-generating devices, or SGDs, produce electronic voice output, allowing the individual to communicate. These portable electronic devices allow him or her to select letters, words, and messages, alone or in combination, to be spoken aloud in a pre-recorded or computer-generated voice text-to-speech.
When an individual is unable to use their hands to access the device, they are still able to generate speech using one or more alternate methods:. The speed and pattern of these methods can be customized to accommodate the user's age, familiarity with the device, etc.
Helping your child become used to and familiar with the device is critical to their overall success with the device.
Speech-generating devices SGDs are defined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as, "durable medical equipment that provides an individual who has a severe speech impairment with the ability to meet his or her functional speaking needs. AAC devices not only have robust language systems to allow for effective and efficient communication, but they also provide alternative ways to select letters, words and messages.
A major advantage of SGDs is that the device allows the individual to say and play with words, which helps the process of acquiring new words and language. In addition, pairing the communicated word with voice output may help the child with the auditory processing of spoken language. Using an SGD is different than using a communication app on a mobile device such as an iPad, as AAC devices are especially designed for the varying and specific needs of individuals with complex communication profiles.
In some cases, an AAC device may be recommended even if a child has had some success using an app on a mobile device to communicate. Almost something out of science fiction, eye gaze is ideal for children and adults who needs hands-free and switch-free device access.
Precise and accurate, eye gaze systems can be calibrated as needed for both children and adults, and works with most eyeglasses and contact lenses. Key activations are made by dwelling over the desired key. In addition, products such as the BJOY ring, available from PRC in either a wired and wireless option, has the added advantage of eliminating the need for multiple controllers. Settings for an external mouse or joystick can be customized within the Accent software, according to an individual's need.
Specific adjustments include:. PRC devices are compatible with a wide variety of switches that can be activated by a hand, knee, elbow, foot or other body part to control a device. Switch scanning allows the user to select the message by activating a switch at the moment the desired word, letter or symbol is highlighted.
Switches can be wired or wireless and adjusted independently to accommodate a broad spectrum of physical abilities.AAC is also supported by manufacturers of in-dash car audio systems. The discrete cosine transform DCTa type of transform coding for lossy compressionwas proposed by Nasir Ahmed inand developed by Ahmed with T. Natarajan and K. Rao inpublishing their results in Princen, A.
Advanced Audio Coding
Johnson and A. Bradley in following earlier work by Princen and Bradley in The Main profile adds a set of recursive predictors that are calculated on each tap of the filterbank. This update included several improvements. These include lossless compression formats, synthetic audio and low bit-rate compression formats generally used for speech. Blind tests in the late s showed that AAC demonstrated greater sound quality and transparency than MP3 for files coded at the same bit rate.
Overall, the AAC format allows developers more flexibility to design codecs than MP3 does, and corrects many of the design choices made in the original MPEG-1 audio specification. This increased flexibility often leads to more concurrent encoding strategies and, as a result, to more efficient compression. This is especially true at very low bit rates where the superior stereo coding, pure MDCT, and better transform window sizes leave MP3 unable to compete.
AAC is a wideband audio coding algorithm that exploits two primary coding strategies to dramatically reduce the amount of data needed to represent high-quality digital audio:. The MPEG-4 audio standard does not define a single or small set of highly efficient compression schemes but rather a complex toolbox to perform a wide range of operations from low bit rate speech coding to high-quality audio coding and music synthesis.
AAC encoders can switch dynamically between a single MDCT block of length points or 8 blocks of points or between points and points, respectively. AAC takes a modular approach to encoding. Depending on the complexity of the bitstream to be encoded, the desired performance and the acceptable output, implementers may create profiles to define which of a specific set of tools they want to use for a particular application.
Audio Object Types and their usage in brand new profiles. Applying error protection enables error correction up to a certain extent.
Error correcting codes are usually applied equally to the whole payload. However, since different parts of an AAC payload show different sensitivity to transmission errors, this would not be a very efficient approach. Error Resilience ER techniques can be used to make the coding scheme itself more robust against errors. No licenses or payments are required for a user to stream or distribute content in AAC format.
However, a patent license is [ when? However, it is restricted to only a single non-multiplexed AAC stream. In later years, Apple began offering music videos and movies, which also use AAC for audio encoding. On May 29,Apple began selling songs and music videos free of DRM from participating record labels. These files mostly adhere to the AAC standard and are playable on many non-Apple products but they do include custom iTunes information such as album artwork and a purchase receipt, so as to identify the customer in case the file is leaked out onto peer-to-peer networks.
It is possible, however, to remove these custom tags to restore interoperability with players that conform strictly to the AAC specification. The first such phone was the Nokia released in which also plays MP3s. However, this phone was a commercial failure [ citation needed ] and such phones with integrated music players did not gain mainstream popularity until when the trend of having AAC as well as MP3 support continued.
Most new smartphones and music-themed phones support playback of these formats. Almost all current computer media players include built-in decoders for AAC, or can utilize a library to decode it.People can have difficulty with face to face communication for many different reasons.
Physical disabilities and motor co-ordination problems can make the production of speech difficult or impossible. People with some types of learning difficulties can find it hard to produce speech or handle spoken language. The term AAC Alternative and Augmentative Communication is used to describe the different methods that can be used to help people with disabilities communicate with others.
As the term suggests these methods can be used as an alternative to speech or to supplement it. No matter what their difficulties are few people can be said to have no method of communication. However, many people will have difficulty in getting their message across and it must always be remembered that this will require effort on the part of the listener communication partner as well.
Communication is essentially a two way process which must involve some degree of mutual understanding and a commonly agreed method. Even when two people can talk and understand the same language easily there can be misunderstanding and failed communication. Communication Methods It could be said that everyone employs augmentative communication methods for much of the time.
When holding a conversation we contribute to the meaning of the words used in many ways, including facial expression, gesture and body language, or by yawning. These additions can add to the meaning of the words used, or even reverse them completely: a verbal expression of interest may be completely negated by a yawn!
For people with disabilities that give rise to speech production problems many different methods are used to support and augment their communication.
American Athletic Conference
These can include an individual method of sign and gesture, standardised signing and symbol systems or complex electronic devices. Developing and using a system of AAC can be a long and complex process for many users and their likely communication partners.
Training and practice will be needed - materials have to be prepared and kept up to date. It should always be recognised that these processes will involve everybody: a communication system or method should be mutually understood and recognised. Systems and methods These terms are sometimes used interchangeably but we have decided to view them as distinct terms.
For example, the English language is a system of communication, speech and writing are two different methods of using this system. Symbol systems A variety of symbol systems are in common use. They have generally been developed to suit users and listeners who have difficulty with understanding written language, e.
Systems can also be combined with individually designed symbols, objects and photographs if required. Symbols can be useful for expressing longer messages and are often quick and easy to recognise as shown by the number in use today in all situations. Symbols can be presented in different ways including using a computer screen, a paper chart or communication book. Symbols can be presented in various ways including charts, boards, communication books and on individual cards. These can be produced by drawing the symbols, photocopying or using a computer program to print out charts.
Signing and gesture systems Manual signing systems have been in use for some time, especially in the deaf community. Different systems have been developed to meet the needs of individuals with learning and motor disabilities.
Signing systems have the major advantage of not requiring any additional equipment or materials, but can be harder to learn. Inclusive carry a number of CD Roms designed to help you learn basic signing - some programs even have signing support in the form of short videos. For younger learners take a look at Speaking For Myself Plus, which includes both sign and symbol support.
Older learners may benefit from sign and symbol supported programs such as Life Skills 24 Hours a Day or open framework programs such as SwitchIt! Text based Written or computer generated text is often used to convey messages.
This may be produced as required or used in the form of pre-stored messages. They will have to be able to learn and understand the meaning and use of the system and be able to operate the chosen method. Electronic systems are often a first choice as they can offer the added bonus of speech output and convey a positive image. They can often disappoint as successful use can be dependant on the support available to set up and maintain the machine and available vocabulary.
They can be prone to breakdown and can be easily damaged. Some users will find them difficult to carry and inappropriate in some situations, such as in the bath.
Low-tech paper and chart based systems are easier to set up and manage, though it must be stressed that choosing an appropriate vocabulary for any system and method is not a trivial task.